Three experiments demonstrated that the experience of power leads to an illusion of personal control. Regardless of whether power was experientially primed (Experiments 1 and 3) or manipulated through roles (manager vs. subordinate; Experiment 2), it led to perceived control over outcomes that were beyond the reach of the power holder. Furthermore, this illusory control mediated the influence of power on several self-enhancement and approach-related outcomes reported in the power literature, including optimism (Experiment 2), self-esteem (Experiment 3), and action orientation (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate the theoretical importance of perceived control as a generative cause of and driving force behind many of power's far-reaching effects. A fourth experiment ruled out an alternative explanation: that positive mood, rather than illusory control, is at the root of power's effects. The discussion considers implications for existing and future research on the psychology of power, perceived control, and positive illusions.

N. Fast, D.H. Gruenfeld, N. Sivanathan, and Adam Galinsky
Journal Article
Publication Date
Psychological Science

Full Citation

Fast, N., D.H. Gruenfeld, N. Sivanathan, and Adam Galinsky
. “Illusory Control: A generative force behind power's far-reaching effects.”
Psychological Science
, (January 01, 2009):